In the current debate about the future of Java (Java the language, of course) and which alternative language would be an appropriate successor of Java (Scala, Clojure, ...), much of the discussion focuses on the question, which language provides the better concurrency model in order to utilize multi-core processors in the future. Actually, I'm not an expert in concurrency, and concurrency clearly is really hard to get right (at least in Java), but usually in web applications - and this is quite a huge part of the Java applications out there - concurrency is not such a big deal, even despite the fact, that web applications are one of the most concurrently running kind of applications.
Concurrency in typical web applications
Surely, most web developers know exactly how to tackle concurrency in web applications. It's not that hard. But for the fun it, let's have a closer look. In a web application client requests are handled by the app server concurrently, each in its own thread, possibly distributed among cpu cores. So generally, there are two situations, where threads run simultaneously:
- Two or more requests of different clients
- Two or more requests of the same client
- Concurrency isn't hard for immutable state and
- Concurrency isn't hard for state that is not accessed by different threads simultaneously (mutable or not)
- State of the current request
- This is for example data needed to generate the response of the request, status of the request, and so on. In most cases, this kind of state is only available to a single thread, i.e. not accessed simultaneously. This is guaranteed by all application servers for request state held in the app server. And this is guaranteed by all web frameworks (also with front controller pattern) for request state held there. The developer has to take care not to store request state where it can be accessed by other request threads. This is neither hard to understand nor hard to accomplish.
- Application state held in the application server or in the web framework
- Examples are ServletContext or web framework settings. This is mostly static state that will be initialized at startup but won't be mutated in the lifetime of the application. Otherwise, the application server/web framework will take care that this kind of state is accessed in a thread-safe way.
- Conversational state
- HTTP is stateless. There is no conversational state. There is not even a conversation. Unfortunately, this is not exactly true in most web applications, as most applications will store some kind of conversational state in the HTTP session. This type of state might be accessed simultaneously by multiple threads, but only by threads spawned by the same client. In most applications concurrent access to this state is rare and might be well supported by the web framework. Nonetheless, this is state the developer has to take care of.
- Application state persisted to the database (business state)
- In fact, this state is read and mutated highly concurrently by different threads. Fortunately, most persistence frameworks support the unit of work pattern: State is replicated from the database for each thread accessing it (as a copy). The thread modifies it and writes it back in a database transaction. Modifying state in this way (in a transaction) is an appropriate concurrency strategy. See also software transactional memory (STM), which is supported e.g. by Clojure.
- "Classical" concurrently accessed state
- For example heavy calculations done explicitly concurrently. In web applications, a request might spawn several other threads to do an expensive calculation. This is the "classical" case, where thread programming might surely become hard. This is definitively a situation where Scala or Closure or any other language with a better concurrency model might be appropriate.
In summary, if there is no state, there is no problem. Immutable state is also not a problem. State, that is only accessed by a single thread is no problem. And state that is modified in a unit of work/transaction is not a problem. And in web applications most state is of one of these kinds (and by the way, this is mostly because of the stateless, request based nature of HTTP). In this sense, Java is quite well prepared for the multi-core future in the field of web applications, although other JVM languages might have the better concurrency model. Nonetheless, there are some even better arguments than concurrency for some alternative languages, for example expressiveness, conciseness or productivity in general.
Update: I did a "prezi" of this post. What a fun tool! See here.